Saturday, April 13, 2019

Return from Exile

I'm back on Facebook.  The Facebook group never left and of course remained active thanks to the TVCU Crew, but it's great to be able to reconnect to the Facebook group.  Twitter just wasn't cutting it.  You can join the Facebook discussion by clicking here.  

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Superman (Fleischer Studios)

I'm almost done with the Superman posts.  I promise I'll eventually get back to writing about other stuff, although based on the numbers Google has been reporting to me, you folks seem to be really enjoying the Superman posts.

Today I'll be covering the Fleischer Superman animated films.  In the golden age comics, the Fleischer films were shown to be fictional cartoons within the comic book universe, so it doesn't fit into the same reality as the Golden Age Superman of comics and radio.  This version of Superman did appear in a deleted scene for Roger Rabbit, so it does fit into that world.

These cartoons are wonderful by the way.  You can find them in the bonus features for Superman the Movie and Superman II, and they also appear in other DVD compilations, plus I believe most of them are also free to watch online on YouTube and other websites.

SUPERMAN (KAL-L/CLARK KENT)--Kal-L is alternately spelled Kal-El. In this Universe, Krypton was a world where its inhabitants were Supermen. When the world faced destruction, scientist Jor-L sent his son to Earth, where he was was found in Smallville, Kansas by the Kents. He was named Clark Kent, and raised by the farmers. As an adult, he moved to the great Metropolis called New York City, where he became a reporter for the Daily Planet, while also using his powers to fight crime as Superman. In this Universe, Superman is represented by the Fleischer Studios animated shorts.

1642--The last time Mt. Monokoa was active.  

In the endless reaches of the universe, there once existed a planet known as Krypton; a planet that burned like a green star in the distant heavens. There, civilization was far advanced, and it brought forth a race of supermen, whose mental and physical powers were developed to the absolute peak of human perfection. But there came a day when giant quakes threatened to destroy Krypton forever. One of the planet’s leading scientists, sensing the approach of doom, placed his infant son in a small rocket ship and sent it hurtling in the direction of the Earth, just as Krypton exploded. The rocket sped through star-studded space, landing safely on Earth with its precious burden: Krypton’s sole survivor. A passing motorist found the uninjured child and took it to an orphanage. As the years went by and the child grew to maturity, he found himself possessed of amazing physical powers. Faster than a speeding bullet, more powerful than a locomotive, able to leap tall buildings in a single bound, the infant of Krypton is now the Man of Steel: SUPERMAN! To best be in a position to use his amazing powers in a never-ending battle for truth and justice, Superman has assumed the disguise of Clark Kent, mild-mannered reporter for a great metropolitan newspaper.


Release Date: September 17, 2004 (Setting is 1940s)

Series: Sky Captain
Animated Series Crosses: Superman (Max Fleischer)
Other Crosses: King Kong; Godzilla; Lost Horizon
The Story: Sky Captain must stop a madman who wants to destroy the human race and start civilization over on a new world.
Notes: This film takes place in the Cartoon Universe. The events of King Kong and Son of Kong are referenced as having occurred. A newspaper headline refers to the events of Godzilla as recently having happened in 1939. Shangri-La appears in this story. And in the film, Sky Captain battles giant remote control robots that were first seen in the 1940s animated Superman shorts.

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September 26, 1941--Superman--Superman fights a mad scientist who threatens Manhattan. This mad scientist will appear again in a fictional sequel that appears as a plot point in an issue of the Superman comics. Note that Bud Collyer famously played the voice of Superman in these shorts which take place in this timeline, and in the radio series which is in the golden age timeline, and the New Adventures of Superman which is in the silver age timeline. Boris Karloff's character of engineer Poelzig in THE BLACK CAT was the inspiration for the mad scientist in the animated Superman cartoon. His hairdo, overall, the way he climbs down the spiral staircase, the shadows are obviously referenced in the cartoon as well as the organ playing by Karloff's mad scientist - a horror-film-stereotype that is derived from THE BLACK CAT.

Superman Classic.jpg

November 28, 1941--Superman Classic--This takes place moments before the start of the Mechanical Monsters. In 2012, Pratt produced the sequel Bizarro Classic, with John and Jennifer Newton reprising their roles as Clark Kent and Lois Lane, respectively.  Pratt has already storyboarded a teamup between Superman and Batman. He has also written a script for Lex Luthor Classic. He hopes to make both projects in the near future, after completing Flash Gordon Classic.

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November 28, 1941--The Mechanical Monsters--This film marks the only instance in which Superman is depicted using x-ray vision in a Fleischer short.  The Mechanical Monsters is the first story (from any medium) that features Clark Kent using a telephone booth to discard his street clothes and change into Superman. This plot device would thereafter become commonly associated with the character.


January 9, 1942--Billion Dollar Limited--Superman stops a train robbery.

Arcticgiant1.JPGFile:The Arctic Giant (1942).webm

February 26, 1942--The Arctic Giant--Superman fights a dinosaur that was found frozen in the arctic. 


March 26, 1942--The Bulleteers--Superman fights a gang that uses bullet shaped vehicles.  


April 24, 1942--The Magnetic Telescope--A scientist who resembles Doctor Sivana tries to bring a comet towards the Earth.  

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May 15, 1942--Electric Earthquake--A Native American mad scientist resentful that his people sold Manhattan threatens to destroy the city.  

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June 10, 1942--Volcano--When a volcano erupts, Superman must save the day.  

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August 23, 1942--Terror on the Midway--Superman must save Lois from escaped circus animals.  

September 18, 1942--Japoteurs--The word "Japoteur" is a portmanteau of the ethnic slur "Jap" and the word "saboteur".  My apologies.  It was a different time, but it's not really an excuse.  The cartoon, and the stereotypical Japanese characters in particular, are done in a style typical of American propaganda during World War II. Many cartoons of the time followed a similar vein, such as the Schlesinger/Warner Bros. cartoons Scrap Happy Daffy (1943), Daffy - The Commando (1943), and Herr Meets Hare (1945), to name a few. Such films typically show Japanese and German characters in a negative light as the American hero makes short work of them.

October 16, 1942--Showdown--Superman stops a criminal who dresses up as Superman.  This is the first appearance of office boy Jimmy Olsen in this timeline, but his name is Louis.  And you can listen to a very long discussion about this from our podcast.  

The Television Crossover Universe Podcast

TVCU #12 - Robert E. Wronski, Jr., or the one where the host is the guest

March 01, 2016
Television Crossover Universe
Join us this week as our host, Robert E. Wronski, Jr., takes the night off from his regular duties to appear as guest on his own show. The TVCU Crew chat with the author and podcast host about Laff-a-Lympics, Happy Days, Leave it to Beaver, Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein, Batman'66, Scooby-Doo Team-Up, Superman, the secret origin of the Television Crossover Universe, the Horror Crossover Encyclopedia, the Cartoon Crossover Encyclopedia, Worlds and Mythology, Bones, and Sleepy Hollow!!!

Eleventh Hour title.pngFile:Superman 12 Eleventh Hour 1942.ogv

November 20, 1942--The Eleventh Hour--Superman is in Japan where he secretly sabotages the Japanese war effort.  Note that this would have been impossible in the Golden Age timeline, where the Axis possessed the Spear of Destiny and Holy Grail, which made Superman and other heroes who are magic based under the control of the Axis if they entered Axis territory during the war.  


December 25, 1942--Destruction, Inc.--Nazis sabotage a factory.

January 30, 1943--A beautiful female secret agent begins an undercover operation.  


February 9, 1943--The Mummy Strikes--A mummy comes to life in a museum.  The Mummy is inspired by the Universal Horror series.  The Mummy here is Anubis.  


March 26, 1943--Jungle Drums--Nazis manipulate locals.  Hitler appears in this one.  

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April 3, 1943--Super-Rabbit--Bugs Bunny temporarily gains super-powers and dons his own Superman costume.

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May 18, 1943--The Underground World--Superman discovers a secret group of people living within the Earth.

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July 30, 1943--Secret Agent--Superman helps a female secret agent.

1944--SHE-SICK SAILORS--Bluto poses as Superman to impress Olive. Now there is evidence that Superman exists in the Looniverse, as seen in a Bugs Bunny short for example, as well in the 1930s and 1940s (as seen in Roger Rabbit and some Superman promotional material from the comics.)


1944--Snafuperman--Private Snafu temporarily gains the powers of Superman from a fairy.

Image result for Fleischer Superman and Mighty Mouse
Release Date: June 22, 1988 (Setting is 1947)
Series: Roger Rabbit
Animated Series Crosses: Mickey Mouse; Donald Duck; Alice Comedies; Pluto; Bucky Bug (Silly Symphonies); Goofy; The Merry Dwarfs (Silly Symphonies); Flowers and Trees (Silly Symphonies); Babes in the Woods (Silly Symphonies); Father Noah’s Ark (Silly Symphonies); The Three Little Pigs (Silly Symphonies); Toby Tortoise (Silly Symphonies); Water Babies (Silly Symphonies); Who Killed Cock Robin?; Elmer Elephant (Silly Symphonies); Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs; Ferdinand the Bull (Silly Symphonies); Pinocchio; Dance of the Hours (Fantasia); The Pastoral Symphony (Fantasia); The Nutcracker Suite (Fantasia); The Reluctant Dragon; Dumbo; Bambi; Pedro (Saludos Amigos); Reason and Emotion; Chicken Little (1943 Disney short); The Pelican and the Snipe; Peter and the Wolf (Make Mine Music); Song of the South; Johnny Appleseed (Melody Time); So Dear to My Heart; The Wind in the Willows (The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad); Alice in Wonderland; The Little House; Peter Pan; Paul Bunyan (1958 Disney short); Sleeping Beauty; Mary Poppins; The Jungle Book; Winnie the Pooh; Looney Tunes; Bugs Bunny; Daffy Duck; Porky Pig; Tweety and Sylvester; Foghorn Leghorn; Goofy Gophers; Road Runner; Speedy Gonzales; Marc Anthony and Pussyfoot; Ralph Wolf and Sam Sheepdog; Of Fox and Hounds; One Froggy Evening; Dodo and the Frog; Droopy; George and Junior; Screwy Squirrel; Tom and Jerry; Betty Boop; Koko the Clown; Noveltoons; Popeye; Casper; Superman (Fleischer/Famous Studios); The Fox and the Crow; Woody Woodpecker; Andy Panda; Chilly Willy; Dinky Doodle; Mother Goose on the Loose; Mighty Mouse; Heckle and Jeckle; The Temperamental Lion; Garfield; Gandy Goose; Felix the Cat; Li’l Abner; Augie Doggie and Doggie Daddy; Scooby-Doo!
The Story: When Marvin Acme, the owner of Toontown and the Acme Corporation is murdered, animation short star Roger Rabbit becomes the prime suspect, and detective Eddie Valiant must get over his prejudice towards toons to help clear Rabbit’s name and find the real killer.
Notes: In my previous book, the Horror Crossover Encyclopedia, I used Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein as my start point in connecting the dots of the Horror Universe. With this book, it was instantly clear to me that Who Framed Roger Rabbit? must my beginning. This film is a major crossover. Though the first cartoons considered canon for the Cartoon Universe date back decades before this, and there had been many cartoon crossovers before this, Who Framed Roger Rabbit? was the first to be able to so successfully (and legally) combine major characters from so many different classic animation studios. In this section, I will break down the crossovers by the studios they originate. This film also is significant in Cartoon Universe canon. This film explains that Toontown is a town that connects to Hollywood of the Live Action Universe. Clearly, though connected, the two towns are of different realities, as the laws of physics are applied differently in each location. And indeed, those from one reality seem to partially carry the laws of their world over with them to the other. For instance, a person from the Live Action Universe could be killed in the Cartoon Universe by something that a toon would survive from. Likewise, a toon maintains its characteristics in the Live Action Universe. This film also presents a notion seen occasionally in previous animation, in that, though toons are created by artists of the Live Action Universe, they actually live and work in the Live Action Universe. Thus, people in the Live Action Universe seem to know of and accept the existence of the Cartoon Universe, even if they seldom speak of it. This means that the Live Action Universe may seem to be a depiction of the Real Universe, but it is not in actuality. This film is based on a book, but the book lacks the crossovers and is not part of the Cartoon Universe canon. As for the crosses, let’s start with Disney. Disney characters can be broken down into four major categories for our purposes. That would be “the Mickey Mouse Universe”, the Disney Princesses, other animated works, and live action properties. I’m excluding from this the Muppets, Star Wars, and Marvel Comics, which were well known long before being acquired by Disney. ABC properties (also owned by Disney now) should also be considered separate, including Once Upon a Time. To discuss Disney, especially in relation to Roger Rabbit and the Cartoon Universe, I have to briefly discuss Kingdom Hearts. See the entry for that video game series for a deeper analysis. But for now, Kingdom Hearts presents a multiverse in which all the various Disney films seem to exist in alternate realities, separated and difficult to travel between. In the series, there are also four different versions of Mickey and friends, in different realities. Kingdom Hearts seems to contradict the Toontown concept introduced in Roger Rabbit and later seen in House of Mouse, Drawn Together, and others. Throughout this book, there are other examples to demonstrate that the Cartoon Universe is part of a larger Cartoon Multiverse. It is my belief, creating a theory relying on in-story information, that the Cartoon Universe is the Central Timeline as part of a multiverse which resembles the Hypertime formerly used by DC Comics, and that the Central Timeline is to the Multiverse as the post-Crisis DC Universe was to the pre-Crisis DC Multiverse. The Central Timeline, aka the Cartoon Universe, combines elements of other realities of the Cartoon Multiverse. Later, Batman: The Brave and the Bold will demonstrate that perhaps my analogy between the DC Multiverse/Hypertime and the Cartoon Multiverse is extremely appropriate. So for now, we will put Kingdom Hearts aside, as existing among other realities of the Cartoon Multiverse, and focus for the remainder of this entry on the proper Cartoon Universe, established by this film and the Toontown concept. So getting back to Disney, and it’s first category of Mickey Mouse, let’s discuss the “Mickey Mouse Universe”. This is not meant to imply a separate reality for Mickey, but meaning the group of characters that often are associated with Mickey Mouse. When it comes to the characters from the “Mickey Mouse Universe”, shorts from the early years had less crossovers, and it makes sense to list crossovers between the stars of the various shorts during those early decades. However, in the more modern era, seeing Mickey, Donald, Goofy and others is so common, that listing crossovers between them would be silly. Thus, for the characters of “the Mickey Mouse Universe”, crossovers between them will be listed only up to the debut of television’s Wonderful World of Disney in 1954. After that, appearances of characters from the Mickey Mouse Universe will not be listed as crossovers, but if, for example, a character from the Mickey Mouse Universe crosses with another series, that cross will be listed as a cross for that short character rather than a cross with the entire Mickey Mouse Universe. Of course, the first of the Mickey Mouse Universe to discuss would be Mickey Mouse. Mickey appears along other major animation icon Bugs Bunny in a scene involving Eddie falling out of a building. (Note that along with using the official styles of each characters, particularly in their 1947 versions, the characters were also mostly voiced by the voice actors who in 1988 were most known for providing that character’s voice.) Mickey first appeared in the animated short Steamboat Willie in 1928. He has since become the most iconic figure and mascot for Disney. He also shares my birthday. Based on the history of Mickey, there seems to be no indication that Mickey has ever lived outside of Toontown, which seems to have portals connecting it to Hollywood and most Disney theme parks of the Live Action Universe. In fact, you can visit Mickey’s Toontown as most Disney parks. As with the other characters I mention as crosses here, Mickey’s further history and connection to the Cartoon Universe is laid out throughout this book. In his life, he seems to have worked many jobs, including a time working for Interpol, but now seems to run Disney. Mickey’s girlfriend Minnie also appears, in a small cameo. She first appeared in Steamboat Willie as well. Goofy is a character that first appeared in the Mickey Mouse short Mickey’s Revue, originally called Dippy Dawg. (Perhaps his full name is Goofy Dippy Dawg.) Goofy was popular enough to get his own spin-off series. He would later work with Mickey for Interpol and become the super-heroic Super Goof, before finally settling down and becomeing a parent in Goof Troop. Pluto is Mickey’s dog. In the Cartoon Universe, there are anthropomorphic animals, and then there are also animals more like those in the Real Universe, though with relative higher degrees of intelligence. Pluto first appeared in the Chain Gang, but would later get his own spin off series of shorts. Horace Horsecollar also appears, who first appeared in the Mickey short The Plow Boy. Another of the Mickey Universe to appear is Clarabelle Cow. Clarabelle first appeared in Plane Crazy. Plane Crazy was actually the first Mickey Mouse cartoon created, but it tested poorly in test screenings. It eventually debuted publicly as the fourth official Mickey Mouse short in 1929. Clara Cluck, who also appears, first debuted in the Mickey short Orphan’s Benefit. The orphans from Orphan’s Benefit also appear. Note that Orphan’s Benefit has its own entry, as it’s the first time Mickey and Donald are seen together. Willie the Giant and the Golden Harp appear, who both originate from Mickey and the Beanstalk, an adaption of the classic Jack and the Beanstalk. This must be one of the numerous divergent timelines as demonstrated from Kingdom Hearts in which Mickey and friends existed in different forms in different time periods. But, they shouldn’t be the same divergent timelines from Kingdom Hearts. Kingdom Hearts demonstrates travel between worlds to be extremely difficult, while Roger Rabbit shows us the exact opposite. Donald Duck appears as a musical act partnered with Daffy Duck. Donald first appeared in 1934’s The Wise Little Hen. Though commonly associated as part of the “Mickey Mouse Universe”, he originated in this Silly Symphonies short, as a separate series star, and those Mickey and Donald are considered two separate series. Donald has lived a large part of his life in Toontown, but seems to have been born in nearby Duckberg (where life is like a hurricane). He also spent some time (off and on) in the Navy. Daisy Duck is Donald’s longtime girlfriend. She first appeared in 1940’s Mr. Duck Steps Out. Huey, Dewey and Louie also appear in a picture in a newspaper. They are Donald’s triplet nephews, the sons of Donald’s sister Della. They first appeared in the Donald Duck newspaper strip before coming to animation a few months later. They often visited Donald in the shorts, usually driving him crazy. Sometimes a fourth nephew, Phooey, appears. He was drawn by accident. He shouldn’t be canon. Later, it was explained that he was a freak incident of nature. A fourth nephew. Nothing more has been said of him, and it seems the Duck/McDuck family do not like to speak of him. The nephews would later live with Donald, until he left again for the navy in Duck Tales, after which they went to live with Uncle Scrooge McDuck. More recently, they have formed a boy band as seen in House of Mouse. This followed their finally aging to teenhood in the 1990s series Quack Pack. Jose Carioca makes a cameo. He was a friend of Donald’s first debuting in Saludos Amigos. Peter Pig first appeared in The Wise Little Hen with Donald Duck. He makes a cameo in the closing song from Roger Rabbit. Gus Goose is Donald’s cousin, who first appeared in the 1939 short Donald’s Cousin Gus. Donald’s flying jalopy from The Flying Jalopy also appears. Pete also appears. Pete first appears as a villain in Alice Solves the Puzzle. The Alice Comedies were about Alice, a girl from the Live Action Universe who found her way into the Cartoon Universe. Pete would later go on to be a villainous figure, often a nemesis to Mickey, Donald and Goofy, and later a neighbor of Goofy in Goof Troop. Chip ‘n’ Dale also appear in the film. Chip ‘n’ Dale started off as antagonists in Pluto cartoons, before moving on to pester Donald Duck. Eventually, they became the stars of their own shorts. Much later, you younger readers may be more familiar with them when they took on the role of Rescue Rangers. And they should not be confused with Chippendales, the adult entertainment club. Bucky Bug was a continuing character from Silly Symphonies whose “adventures” continued in the comic book Walt Disney's Comics and Stories. Humphrey the Bear was a character who first appeared in a Goofy short, but then became a regular character in a few Donald shorts before getting his own starring spin-off. Though four Humphrey shorts were created, only two were released as Disney discontinued their short animated theatrical films before the remainder made it out. Mr. Walker appears in Roger Rabbit. Mr. Walker is actually Goofy, from his “everyman films”, particularly in this case Motor Mania, where Goofy is a Jekyll and Hyde sort, transformed when he gets behind the wheel of a motor vehicle. Roger Rabbit seems to demonstrate Mr. Walker to be a separate character than Goofy, even if they are appear to be the same. The Merry Dwarfs also appear, who come from a Silly Symphony. The Flowers and Trees of the Silly Symphony of the same name also appear. The gnomes from Babes in the Woods, a Silly Symphony version of Hansel and Gretel, appear. There are numerous versions of Hansel and Gretel that make their way into the canon of the Cartoon Universe. So the question is, are they the same pair just portrayed in different interpretations, or are they different sets of siblings. At first, I wanted to cop out for simplicity and say that every interpretations should be the same pair, a theory I could then apply to all fairy tale characters, and by extension, all characters in animation that are based on characters that did not originate in animation. But, as we will soon get to, this very film demonstrates I have to consider them as separate as this film has both Bugs Bunny and the prototype version of Bugs Bunny as two separate characters. If they are different, then we have to consider that the Daffy Duck Robin Hood and the Disney fox Robin Hood are separate, that the Simpsons James Woods is not the James Woods from Family Guy, and that Mighty Mouse and Super Mouse are separate characters. And there is enough evidence to prove that out based on in-story examples. The sun seen in Toontown, thus the sun of the Cartoon Universe at least during that period, was the same sun from the Silly Symphony Father Noah’s Ark. Father Noah’s Ark is a retelling of the biblical tale of Noah and the Great Flood, which happened at some point in the past (and I’m not going to debate it on a religious scale). It would seem that this telling would be the official version of the Cartoon Universe. Oddly, though, later another version appears in Fantasia 2000, featuring what should be ancestors of Donald and Daisy. Thanks to Kingdom Hearts, though, we know that Donald exists in multiple realities, some of which place him in other time periods. So his Fantasia version likely exists in the established Fantasia alternate reality seen in Kingdom Hearts. So the Silly Symphony must be the main Cartoon Universe version. The Disney Silly Symphony versions of the Three Little PIgs, Zeke “Big Bad” Wolf, and Little Red Riding Hood also appear. Toby Tortoise appears, who was a recurring Silly Symphony character. The Water Babies also appear, who originate from a 1935 Silly Symphony short about water sprites. Jenny Wren (who resembles a bird version of Mae West) appears, who originated from the Silly Symphony Who Killed Cock Robin, based on the nursery rhyme of the same name. Elmer Elephant and Joe Giraffe from the Silly Symphony Elmer Elephant also appear. Ferdinand the Bull, also from a Silly Symphony, also appears, based on the Story of Ferdinand. Many characters from Fantasia also appear, including the broomsticks from the Sorcerer’s Apprentice. Fantasia exists in an alternate reality based on Kingdom Hearts. Thus, that Mickey is a divergent version. It should be noted though that the main Cartoon Universe Mickey is often seen with the famous hat and using its power, specifically in promotions for the Wonderful World of Disney and Disney theme parks. I will argue that perhaps the main Cartoon Universe Mickey may have had a similar experience as his Fantasia counterpart, but they are still different versions from different realities. One of the Fantasia bits that crosses over here is the Nutcracker Suite. This would be the version from the Fantasia reality, which apparently can connect to the main Cartoon Universe as easily as other realities. Other version of the Nutcracker will also be crossed into this guide, and as we come across each, I will address how they all can coexist. Pedro (the Plane) also appears, who originated as a short segment in Saludos Amigos, later rereleased as an independent short. Emotion appears. Emotion resembles a caveman, but is in fact part of the human psyche, as seen in the World War II era short Reason and Emotion. Chicken Little appears, from the World War II era short of the same name, based on “The Sky is Falling” fable. The 2005 animated film will also get included via a valid cross with Kingdom Hearts. At that point, I’ll discuss further how both can be in, but I’m sure the two stories are different enough to not cause contradiction. Monte the Pelican also appears, who originated from the Pelican and the Snipe, a World War II era Silly Symphony. Peter from Peter and the Wolf appears. This short is based on the musical composition and fairy tale, and likely takes place in the “Enchanted Forest”. There are other versions that will make it in that likely take place in alternate dimensions. The animals from Johnny Appleseed appear, but not Johnny himself. Johnny Appleseed was a short included as a segment in Melody Time. Though the film came out in 1948, the animals could still have existed in 1947, when Roger Rabbit takes place. And in fact, Johnny Appleseed takes place in the 18th Century, so their appearance is not at all anachronistic. If anything, those animals are just very long lived. The apartments and skyscrapers from Little House appear. Little House is a short that came out in 1952, but based on a story from 1942. Babe the Blue Ox from Disney’s 1958 Paul Bunyan short appears. Since the story of Paul Bunyan comes from folklore that existed prior to his first print appearance in 1916, the appearance is not an anachronism. The second Disney category is Disney Princess. According to Kingdom Hearts, all of the princesses exist in alternate realities which do not interact. However, Toontown based shows (following the Roger Rabbit tradition) such as House of Mouse and Drawn Together, portray the princesses not only living on the same world, but also living contemporary to each other in our present day. We must assume as with Mickey and company that the Kingdom Hearts worlds are divergent realities, while the Cartoon Universe is the main reality. According to Drawn Together, the “Magic Kingdoms” are accessible via portals accesssible at Disney parks, much as Toontown is. Applying what we know from Roger Rabbit, House of Mouse, and Drawn Together, and applying some other Disney based information from similarly themed Kingdom Hearts and Once Upon a Time, we might be able to come to a workable theory, and thus I shall try. Note, this is only a theory, based on what in-story information we have to go on. We already know that the Cartoon Universe itself seems to be made up of several overlapping realities. It could be that the realities of these Disney Princesses indeed exist in separate realities, very much as depicted in Kingdom Hearts, but unlike Kingdom Hearts, they are accessible to each other through a magical “Enchanted Forest” that lies between them all, in a manner that may make them all contemporary with each other as like on Once Upon a Time. This would mean this Fairy Tale Land exists in a seperate reality outside the Cartoon Universe, but that connects to the Cartoon Universe in a manner similar to the Live Action Universe. Because time operates differently there in Fairy Tale Land, as it operates differently in the Cartoon Universe, the stories can happen “once upon a time” and in contemporary times. Placing fairy tales in a separate but connecting reality can then also help explain the Hansel and Gretel dilemma above. Perhaps there is more than one version of Fairy Tale Land out there. Surely, if Mickey can exist in mutliple realities, so can Snow and Cinderella. Thus, not all versions of fairy tales seen are the same. They are likely all alternate versions from different pocket realities that connect to the Cartoon Universe. Snow White, the Evil Queen, the Seven Dwarfs, and the forest animals from Disney’s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs appear. In the real world, Snow White was published in 1812, but likely came from earlier folklore. In the world of Disney, it seems as though the story takes place in some ambiguous “once upon a time”, and yet at the same time contemporary with other stories and characters from Disney of the same time as the Disney film release in 1937. (I’m not even going to go into the Once Upon a Time version’s timeline...for now. Shrek is another similar situation that will later be discussed.) Pinnochio also appears. Pinnochio, Jiminy Cricket and Lampwick also come from one of the “Magic Kingdoms” of the “Enchanted Forest”. Several characters from Wonderland appear. Disney’s Alice likely comes from the main Cartoon Universe, while Wonderland is a pocket reality attached to the Cartoon Universe similar to Fairy Tale Land, but those two realities are clearly different realms. Tinkerbell appears at the end, doing her classic Disney film ending, along with John Darling and a rhino from Peter Pan. Peter Pan came out in 1953. But it takes place in 1900. Neverland is another real like Fairy Tale Land and Wonderland. The Darlings, like Alice, must come from the main Cartoon Universe. Some goons and birds from Sleeping Beauty appear. Aurora (who is the Sleeping Beauty) comes from another of the Magic Kingdoms of the Enchanted Forest. Next we move to Disney’s third category, for other animated projects. The first of which is the Reluctant Dragon. Both the Dragon and Giles appear. The Reluctant Dragon was actually a short animated film that was part of a larger film of the same name that consisted of a live action tour of Disneyland, The Reluctant Dragon film, and three other animated shorts that are all not at all connected. Several characters from Dumbo appear in Roger Rabbit, including the flying elephant himself, who in this film is on loan from Disney to Maroon Studios and only works for peanuts. Of course, in this sense, one might wonder if the cartoons these toons were in were considered fictional within the Roger Rabbit film, especially since Roger’s shorts certainly seemed to be. But for the most part, every toon maintains the same characteristics behind the scenes (except for Baby Herman.) Based on later appearances of Toontown, we have to consider that appearances of toons here bring in their main canon, and that they must have made films based upon their real exploits and all starred as themselves in these films. Several Bambi characters also appear, including the title character. Bambi appears in his more youthful state, as seen in the bulk of his first animated film. In fact, almost every crossover appearance of Bambi shows him at that age, even in the modern era. We know that toons age differently than we of the real world, or even our fictional counterparts of the Live Action Universe. So it seems as though the ending of Bambi, where he is grown takes place in a future that hasn’t come to pass (and at least in one divergent timeline, doesn’t, thanks to Godzilla!) Many of the animated characters from Song of the South appear. Those animated characters for most of Song of the South appear to be fictional stories told by Uncle Remus of the Live Action main portion of the film. But by end, it’s clear they really exist, thus they must be from the Cartoon Universe while Uncle Remus and the live action portions are in the Live Action Universe. So Dear to My Heart, though not a sequel, was a follow up to Song of the South in theme. It featured a live action story with animation used in story telling. The animated characters appear in Roger Rabbit, but using Song of the South, we can assume the same relationship between the Cartoon and Live Action Universes apply. Though the film was released in 1949, the story took place in 1903, thus no anachronisms are present in this instance. Mr. Toad and Proudbottom appear from Ichabod and Mr. Toad, a film that featured two separate stories that were unrelated. Only the Mr. Toad portion is included here. The film is based on Wind in the Willows and takes place in 1906, even though it came out in 1949. A silouhite of Mary Poppins and penguin waiters from the same film appear in Roger Rabbit. Mary Poppins did not come out until 1964, but the story took place in 1910, thus there is no anachronism here. This crossover appearance implies that the animated characters from that film come from the Cartoon Universe while the main story takes place in the Live Action Universe. Characters from the Jungle Book also appear. The Jungle Book came out in 1967 but is set in the 19th century, so there are no anachronisms here. Piglet appears, from 1966’s Winnie the Pooh and the Honey Tree. However, since the original story by A.A. Milne takes place in 1926, there isn’t an anachronism. So now that we’ve covered Disney, it’s time to move onto their biggest competitor, Warner Brothers and their Looney Tunes characters. As with the Mickey Mouse Universe, there is a cut off when I will stop listing crossovers between individual stars of Looney Tunes shorts. I’m choosing 1960’s television debut of the Bugs Bunny Show. Any crossovers of Looney Tunes stars with other Looney Tunes stars will be listed if they were before that date, but not after. Before getting into Looney Tunes series, first there’s a sort of crossover with Looney Tunes as a whole. Sort of. The song “The Merry-Go-Round Broke Down” is sung twice, with different words, in Roger Rabbit. The first time it is sung by Roger as he entertains in a bar, and the second by Eddie to make the weasels die laughing. You may think you don’t know the song, but it’s the famed theme song for Looney Tunes. It was written in 1937 and became the Looney Tunes theme the same year, and has been associated with the Looney Tunes ever since. OK, so now onto the characters, and we start with the number one star of Looney Tunes, Bugs Bunny. Bugs Bunny, as stated earlier, appears with Mickey in one scene. They also appear with a group of toons at the close of the film. Bugs first appeared in the 1940 short A Wild Hare. However, in 1938, a prototype of Bugs appeared in a Porky short called Porky’s Hare Hunt. In Roger Rabbit, the Bugs Bunny prototype also appears, as a separate character, and so we must assume them to be two different individuals with similar appearance and characteristics. So Bugs is not a spin-off character of Porky Pig. But he is. The prototype is named Happy Rabbit, and later got his own shorts where he faced a hunter who was a prototype for Elmer Fudd named Egghead. Egghead first appeared in Egghead rides again. Since Happy and Bugs are considered separate, Egghead is not Elmer, though some shorts with Happy and Egghead have been considered to be Bugs and Elmer. Elmer officially appeared in 1940’s Elmer’s Candid Camera. In that film short, Elmer clashed with Bug’s prototype Happy. This would seem to make Elmer a spin-off of Happy who is a spin-off of Porky, but I think it’s clear that history sees Elmer as a member of the Bugs Bunny Rogues Gallery, and thus any appearances of Elmer is a reference to the Bugs Bunny series. Another of Bugs’ rogues to appear is Yosemite Sam, who leaps over the wall dividing Toon Toon from Hollywood after his rear end catches fire. Sam first appeared in Super-Rabbit. Mama Bear appears. This is the Looney Tunes Mama Bear from the short Bugs Bunny and the Three Bears. In this short, the three bears are almost identical to the Goldilocks fairy tale, but they are not the same. They are, however, aware of the fairy tale, and though cartoon logic, assume that if they attempt to reenact the classic tale, a little girl will come along for them to eat. But Mama Bear is out of porridge and makes carrot soup instead, which instead lures Bugs. Another of Bugs’ rogues to appear is Marvin the Martian. It’s interesting that Marvin would be in Toontown in 1947 when Bugs wouldn’t meet Marvin until 1948 in Haredevil Hare. Though Marvin is most well known for matching wits with Bugs, he would also feature in Daffy’s fictional accounts of Duck Dodgers, and ironically, would later be a foe of Daffy when he actually takes on the role of Duck Dodgers. Another rogue to appears is Toro the Bull, from Bully for Bugs, a short from 1953, so at this point in Roger Rabbit, Bugs and Toro have not officially met yet. During Roger Rabbit, at one point, Eddie uses Bugs’ famous catchphrase, “What’s up, Doc?” Daffy Duck appears with Donald in a dueling pianists scene. Daffy is a spin-off character who comes from Porky’s series, debuting in 1937’s Porky’s Duck Hunt. However, Daffy is such a grandiose character that I feel it would be unbefitting him to not give him his own recognition as a series star in his own right, and so I am not considering his appearance here as a cross with Porky Pig, but with Daffy Duck. Only Daffy could make me break my own rules. Speaking of Porky Pig, Porky is one of the older of the famed Looney Tunes. He first debuted in 1935’s I Haven’t Got a Hat. He appears in Roger Rabbit, working in Toontown as a cop, and for seemingly the first time, ends a show with his famous stuttering “That’s all, folks!” This phrase seems to have evolved. Originally, Jerry the Troublesome Tyke’s cartoon’s ended with “And That’s All!” In 1929, Warner Brothers started ending their Bosko with “So long, Folks!” and in 1930, “That’s all, Folks!” was said by Bosko at the end of the short. Other characters used one of the two variations up until the late 1930s at the ends of Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts, but Bugs would usually end with “And dat’s de end!” in his Brooklyn accent. It’s interesting to note Porky has a stutter because his original voice actor, Joe Dougherty, had a stutter, and it was easier to just go with it rather than edit it. Porky’s stutter so defined him that Mel Blanc continued it when he took over as Porky’s voice. Yoyo Dodo also appears, who originated from Porky in Wackyland. Wackyland may actually be the same 5th dimensional world that Mr. Mxyzptlk and Bat-Mite come from. Tweety and Sylvester both appear. Though I consider Tweety & Sylvester as a single series, the two originally started as separate series. Tweety first appeared in 1942’s a Tale of Two Kitties while Sylvester debuted in 1945’s Life with Feathers. The two first appeared together in 1947’s Tweetie Pie. Another Looney Tunes character to appear is Gracie the Fighting Kangaroo. Gracie is the mother of Hippety Hopper, and first appeared in Pop ‘Im Pop. This was also the appearance of Sylvester’s son, Sylvester Junior, and was part of a series of shorts to team up Sylvester and Hippety Hopper as adversaries, Sylvester mistaking the baby kangaroo for a giant mouse. Hippety first appeared in Hop, Look and Listen. Pop ‘Im Pop debuted in 1950 and Hop, Look and Listen in 1948. Roger Rabbit must take place before Hippety was born. Foghorn Leghorn also appears, who first appeared in 1946’s Walky Talky Hawky. Also appearing are the Goofy Gophers who first appeared in the short of the same name from 1947. The Road Runner appears, along with his nemesis, Wile E. Coyote. Both first appeared in 1949’s Fast and Furry-ous. Though they first appeared two years after Roger Rabbit is set, that doesn’t necessarily make any continuity conflicts. Their first short did not seem to be the first time the two have matched wits, so they may have lived out in the desert near Toontown for some time prior to their first short. One of the main characters of Who Framed Roger Rabbit is Marvin Acme. He is an original character from the film, but his character was the founder of the Acme Corporation, most famously known as the supplier of Wile E. Coyote’s various gadgets. In the real world, Acme first became a popular name for various businesses once the phone book was invented, in order to have their business listed first. Usually, this led to people ordering items, such as anvils, from catalogues that would bear the Acme logo. The first known appearance of Acme in fiction was in the 1920 silent film, Neighbors, with Buster Keaton. It has appeared numerous times in fiction. Since Acme is real, I don’t consider them all to be crossovers, unless it’s a clear crossover reference, such as in the case of Marvin Acme. Acme products have been used by Wile E. Coyote since his first appearance and at that point the name of Acme became most identified with Road Runner cartoons. Another connection between Roger Rabbit and the Road Runner happens at a scene at an Acme warehouse. One of the items is an animated black hole, that when place on a surface, actually becomes a real hole in that surface. This comes from the common animation gag of drawing a tunnel on a rock and making it a real tunnel, popularized in the Road Runner cartoons. Another Looney Tunes toon to appear who has super-speed abilities like the Road Runner is Speedy Gonzalez. Speedy first debuted in 1953’s Cat-Tails for Two, a parody of Of Mice and Men, with cat versions of Lennie and George. Speedy typically lives in Mexico, but apparently lived for a time in Toontown prior to his official debut. Speedy would later become a regular foe/partner in shorts with Daffy Duck and Sylvester. Marc Antony also appears. Marc Antony is a big bulldog, who is extremely protective of the cute little kitten Pussyfoot (sometimes also called Kitty or Cleo). The pair first appeared in 1952’s Feed the Kitty. This is when they first met, so it makes sense that Marc Antony is appearing in Roger Rabbit without his cute partner. Sam Sheepdog also appears, who was usually partnered up with Ralph Wolf in shorts. Ralph Wolf looks nearly identical to Wile E. Coyote, but they are not the same. They have different accents and speech patterns, and different colored eyes. They also have slightly different personalities. A Looney Tunes comic book from DC Comics revealed that Wile and Ralph are in fact cousins. Also appearing in Roger Rabbit is George the Fox, from Of Fox and Hounds. Of Fox and Hounds was also the debut of Willoughby the Dog. Michigan J. Frog also appears, who debuted in One Froggy Evening from 1955, thus this is his earliest chronological appearance. However, there is a continuity hiccup. In G.L. Gick’s story “The Werewolf of Rutherford Grange”, it’s revealed that Michigan was placed in that box and trapped in the building when it was build in the 1800s, and then discovered when the building was demolished in 1955. So this can’t be Michigan. One popular fan theory is that the frog seen, though intended to be Michigan, may actually be Fennimore Frog, from DC Comics’ Dodo and the Frog. Fennimore looks nearly identical to Michigan and it would explain away the continuity problem. Fennimore in fact first appeared in DC Comics in 1947, and was one of the more popular “funny stuff” characters at DC. In the 1980s, it was established that Fennimore existed on Earth-C, as part of the DC Multiverse. More recently, Earth-C has been renamed Earth-26, and is shown to still exist as part of DC’s New 52 multiverse. For the purposes of this book, we might assume that the Cartoon Universe and Earth-C/26 are not the same, but the pre-Captain Carrot Dodo and the Frog may have existed in both realities. Next we move into the characters who originated from MGM, though I believe they are now owned by Warner Bros. The first to discuss is Droopy. Droopy appears in Toontown operating an elevator. Droopy debuted in 1943’s Dumb-Hounded. The wolf from Dumb Hounded was meant to appear during the scene where Jessica Rabbit is performing, but it was cut. In Red Hot Riding Hood, it was revealed the wolf who was an adversary of Droopy was also the wolf from one variant version of Little Red Riding Hood that began in the traditional manner but then diverged into an alternate modernized retelling of the story. George, one half of the George and Junior team, appears. George and Junior were bears based on George and Lennie from Of Mice and Men. They debuted in 1946’s Henpecked Hoboes. The octopus from the George and Junior short Half-Pint Pygmy also appears in Roger Rabbit, working as a bartender. Since Half-Pint Pygmy was released in 1948, George and Junior have not yet encountered the octopus at this point. Screwy Squirrel appears in a framed picture on Lena Hyena’s wall and is also mentioned by a bar patron in Roger Rabbit. Screwy debuted in 1944’s Screwball Squirrel. Screwy’s adversary, Meathead Dog, also appears, sniffing around the Maroon Studios lot. Tom and Jerry were originally meant to appear, seen comforting each other at Marvin Acme’s funeral, but that scene was cut. However, since it was the writer’s and director’s intention to include them originally, I’m still counting appearance that were put in then cut as crossovers. Tom and Jerry debuted in 1940’s Puss Gets the Boot (where Tom was named Jasper and Jerry was named Jinx!) Another stronger connection between Tom and Jerry and Roger Rabbit occurs through the appearance of the witch from The Flying Sorceress, a Tom and Jerry short which was released in 1956, meaning the famous cat and mouse have not yet encountered her at this point. Spike also appears in Roger Rabbit. Spike is a supporting character in Tom and Jerry. He is a dog owned by the same family that owns Tom. Sometimes he is called Butch or just Bulldog. He has a son named Tyke. He first appeared in 1942’s Dog Trouble. Interestingly, his temporary name change to Butch occurred when Droopy gained a nemesis in 1949 named Spike who was nearly identical to Tom and Jerry’s Spike. Since that second Spike debuted in 1949, we can be assured that the Spike in Roger Rabbit is the one who debuted in 1942. The second Spike confusingly also was sometimes renamed Butch, and for a time spun off into his own series of shorts. Despite the shared name and appearance, they were separate characters. However, likely due to confusion from the next generation of animators, in the short lived 1980s Tom and Jerry Comedy Show, the two were conflated. Based on that, we could assume that both versions of Spike/Butch were always the same character, if not for Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring and later Tom and Jerry movies in which the two dogs were again shown to be separate characters. So how then to explain that brief period of two years (1980 - 1982) when they were conflated? Since they were identical in almost every way, perhaps they were indeed identical brothers, one living a domesticated life with Tom and Jerry, while the other a more sinister path as Droopy’s constant adversary. In the Tom and Jerry Show, though seemingly the same character, he appeared in separate Tom and Jerry segments and Droopy segments, so it’s easy to presume the Tom and Jerry segments featured one brother and the Droopy segments featured the other. So which is Spike and which is Butch. It seems they both shared both names, but in the more recent canon, Tom’s pesky nemesis is named Butch and Droopy’s foe is named Spike. However, it’s safe to assume that whatever they were called, the characters they interacted with (Tom and Jerry or Droopy) determines which of the brothers we see. But in the Tom and Jerry films, they make clear that it’s Tom and Jerry’s friend and not Droopy’s foe, despite the bulldog’s interactions with Droopy. So that wraps up MGM. Let’s now discuss characters that originated from Paramount Pictures/Fleischer/Famous Studios. The company started off as Fleischer Studios, but when Paramount bought out the company in 1942, it was renamed Famous Studios. In 1956, it became Paramount Cartoon Studios. The first to discuss is Betty Boop. Boop oop a doop. (Sorry, couldn’t resist.) Betty Boop first appeared in 1930’s Dizzy Dishes. In Roger Rabbit, she is now working as a cigarette girl because she didn’t make the transition to color like other toons and so she has a hard time finding work in cartoons. In Roger Rabbit, she is still in black and white. Eddie Valiant, who prior to 1942, worked regularly in Toontown, seemed to be old friends with Betty, and though he hated most toons (due to one killing his brother), he was still extremely friendly to Betty. Wiffle Piffle also appears, who was one of the recurring antagonists in Betty Boop cartoons. Koko the Clown also appears, a character who debuted in 1919! His debut was in Out of the Inkwell, where the character would interact with his creator, Max Fleischer, another demonstration that toons were once aware of their fictionality, and that indeed the Cartoon Universe is a tulpa type reality brought to life based on the imaginations of people from the Live Action Universe. In the modern era, it seems that toons have lost their awareness of their relationship to the Live Action Universe, or at least they don’t talk about it as much. One very interesting cameo is that of the Noveltoons Joker, a jack-in-the-box that became the mascot of Noveltoons, and later Harvey Comics, starting in 1943. What’s interesting is the mascot only appeared as the opening logo for the cartoons, and on Harvey covers and in ads. Roger Rabbit is its only actual story appearance that I have found. Technically, though, and later entries will prove this point, even television commercials and print advertising has a place in the Cartoon Universe canon. Popeye also appears in the deleted scene at the funeral, along with Olive and Bluto. Popeye originated from the comic strip called Thimble Theatre. Thimble Theatre was a comic strip created in 1919, in which Popeye was first introduced in 1929. He soon became the star due to his popularity, and the strip was renamed after him. His first appearance in a cartoon was actually in the Betty Boop short Popeye the Sailor, in which Popeye literally came out to the comics and into the cartoon world. This would make the animated Popeye both an adaption of the comic strip, and a spin-off of Betty Boop, but due to his popularity and being the longest lived of the Fleischer Studios series, he does not get treated as a spin-off in this reference guide. The strip and cartoon, though similar, had enough differences to maintain that while the animated Popeye may exists in the Cartoon Universe, his comic version likely takes place in some alternate reality. In fact, his first animated appearance may have been that of his comic counterpart, considering the circumstances, with all his other animated appearances being that of the Cartoon Universe counterpart. Casper was also cut from his appearance at the funeral. The animated Casper is based on a children’s book from 1939. His first animated debut was in 1945. The cartoons made some changes from the book, so that we must consider the book to exist in some alternate reality. The Casper of the Cartoon Universe lives with other ghosts in a haunted house in the woods outside a community which is probably Toontown. He is actually not a dead human. In this case, ghosts are a separate supernatural species. Casper’s parents were also ghosts. The later Harvey Comics version is also a different reality. There, Casper lives in an Enchanted Forest, where fairytale characters exist. Likewise, the later live action films portray Casper as a dead boy named Casper McFadden, so these also take place in an alternate universe. (Note in the latter’s case, the live action films are referenced in my last book, the Horror Crossover Encyclopedia, as existing in the Horror Universe due to a crossover in the first of those films with Ghostbusters.) Superman also appears at the deleted funeral scene, comforting Mighty Mouse. This is the Fleischer Studios version of Superman. For the purposes of this reference guide, every different variation of Superman will be considered as a separate series, whether in animation or other mediums. Roger Rabbit only brings in at this time the version from the 1940s Fleischer/Famous shorts. This version of Superman originally could not fly, but by the end of the series could. He operated out of Manhattan rather than Metropolis. Other later entries (meaning post 1940s era, so you may have already read them if you are reading this in release date order) will reveal other versions of Superman existing in the same Cartoon Universe, while others seem to exist in alternate realities. The Superman of the various series tied to the main Cartoon Universe, whether it be from the Fleischer shorts, the New Adventures of Superman, the Super Friends, the 1988 Superman, or various cameos and guest appearances in other cartoons, are all the same Superman. While in my previous work with the Horror Universe (and before that the Television Crossover Universe), continuity was very important. In the Cartoon Universe, it’s been demonstrated that this is a reality with very flexible rules. Thus, it’s very possible that the characteristics of Superman could change over time, and seem different when viewed from the perspectives of different characters and communities of the Cartoon Universe. So the Superman appearing (almost) in Roger Rabbit could indeed be the same Superman who pops up from time to time in Family Guy! As we get to more Superman cartoon appearances, I will explore this issue some more. The Fox and the Crow are the only crossover from Columbia Pictures...and their scene was cut. They were to appear in Toontown when Eddie is looking for Jessica. But the crossover is still valid, so we can discuss them. They first appeared in 1941 in a modernized adaptation of the Aesop fairy tale. The duo continued to appear into shorts until 1950, but their legacy lasted even longer in comics. DC Comics gained the license for the characters and started the Fox and Crow as a comic series starting in 1945, when the golden age of super-heroes was dying down and being replaced by funny animals and westerns. The characters continued to be published by DC well into the 1960s. They would still continue to be referenced (as fictional) within the main DC Universe for decades after. Unlike with Popeye and Casper, the Fox and the Crow comic does seem to be the same version as the cartoons and so fits nicely in the Cartoon Universe. It should be noted that while DC Comics has established Earth-C (later Earth-26) as the home of their funny animal characters, the Fox and the Crow were never actually demonstrated to exist on Earth-C (26) until the Captain Carrot mini-series The Final Arc, a tie in to their Final Crisis series. There, they were shown to be part of Earth-26, the New 52 version of Earth-C. Earth-26 still exists as demonstrated by the recent Multiversity mini-series. Since the New 52 is a self-contained multiverse with a specific group of 52 alternate realities, it does not necessarily work with the Cartoon Multiverse. Which is good, because Earth-C/26 is a demonstratively different reality than the Cartoon Universe. Likely, the Cartoon Multiverse and DC’s New 52 are both multiverses within a larger Omniverse. Moving on to Universal Studios/Walter Lantz, we have an appearance by Woody Woodpecker, who first debuted in 1940’s Knock Knock. Buzz Buzzard is also seen. Though a recurring foe of Woody, at the time in which Roger Rabbit is set, Woody and Buzz (hey, Woody and Buzz, get it? Toy Story) have not yet crossed paths. Buzz first appeared in the 1948 Woody short Wet Blanket Policy. Papa Panda also appears, the father of Andy Panda. Both Andy and Papa debuted in Life Begins for Andy Panda in 1939. Chilly Willy is also mentioned by a man in the bar who is mocking Eddie’s clientele. Chilly Willy didn’t debut until 1953, but apparently he was still well known in Hollywood in 1947 to get referenced by the man in the bar. The bar patron also mentions Dinky Doodle, who first appeared in 1924. He also refers to Bo Peep. Bo Peep is of course a nursery rhyme, but since he’s referring to toons, it’s likely he means the Bo Peep from 1942’s Mother Goose on the Loose. Next we move on to Terrytoons, starting with Mighty Mouse, who was part of the cut funeral scene, where he was comforting Superman. Technically, Mighty Mouse first appeared, as Super Mouse, in 1942’s Mouse of Tomorrow. He was renamed Mighty Mouse in 1944’s The Wreck of the Hesperus. The Mighty Mouse comic book from Marvel Comics in the 1990s however made canon that Super Mouse was actually an alternate Earth doppelganger of Mighty Mouse. They were two distinct characters, much like the difference between the golden age/Earth-2 Superman and his later silver age/Earth-1 counterpart. Super Mouse is nicknamed Terry the First, and he doesn’t talk, while on the other hand, Mighty Mouse tends to sing...a lot. Both characters have had numerous varied origin stories, any of which could be correct given the nature of how the Cartoon Universe works. Heckle and Jeckle also appear, for debuted in 1946’s The Talking Magpies. The Temperamental Lion, from the 1939 short of the same name, appears in the final scene of Roger Rabbit. Thus far, all the crosses we’ve discussed make sense for an animated crossover story set in 1947. The next crossover to discuss seems more forced than logical. It’s like they said, “Hey, they gave us permission, so let’s do it. Who cares if it makes sense.” I’m talking about Garfield, who makes a “blink and you’ll miss him” cameo. Garfield. Yes, Garfield. He hates Mondays and historical continuity. He loves lasagna and illogical cameos. Garfield first appeared in a comic strip by Jim Davis in 1978. His leap to animation was 1982’s Here Comes Garfield. His animated appearances mostly fit perfectly in the same continuity as the comic strip, so both are considered part of the same canon. So why is Garfield in 1947 Toontown? How is Garfield in 1947 Toontown? Toons do age much slower than people in the real world, or even the Live Action Universe, so it could be Garfield is that old, and this is his earliest chronological appearance. But time travel seems to at times be relatively easy in the Cartoon Universe as well. And it doesn’t even have to make sense. So this may be 1988 Garfield popping back to 1947 for the sole purpose of making a cameo? So which is it? Doesn’t matter. All that matters is that Garfield is there, and thus Garfield is brought into the Cartoon Universe. Finally from Terry Toons is Gandy Goose. Gandy first appeared in 1938’s The Owl and the Pussycat and was often teamed with Sourpuss. From King Features Syndicate, only Felix the Cat is representing. Felix first appeared in 1919’s Feline Follies. United Features Syndicate also only has one representative, and that is Li’l Abner. Li’l Abner started as a comic strip, created by Al Capp, that began in 1934. In 1944, he transitioned to animated shorts that didn’t contradict the comic strip, thus we can conclude his appearance brings in both the strip and shorts as part of the same canon. The final group to discuss are the characters from Hanna-Barbera. Only two make it into Roger Rabbit, and both anachronistic. The first is Yakky Doodle. Yakky did have his own series, but he was a spin-off character, first appearing in an Augie Doggie and Doggie Daddy segment of the Quick Draw McGraw Show in 1959. The other is Scooby-Doo! (Exclamation point apparently required.) Scooby first appeared in 1969 in television’s Scooby-Doo, Where are You! The same explanations apply as for Garfield. I do understand that Hanna-Barbera did not take off as a studio in its own right until 1957, but is one of the major classic animation studios, and so they felt it needed some representation.

Image result for Lupin III Mechanical Monsters 1980--Lupin III--In the final episode, Lupin faces off against a return of the Mechanical Monsters once faced by Superman.

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1986--Castle in the Sky--The Mechanical Monsters appear again.

1994--The Tick--"The Tick versus Brainchild"--Skippy, the cyborg dog, is inspired by the Mechanical Monsters.

1995--The Shnookums and Meat Funny Cartoon Show --Another appearance of the Mechanical Monsters.

2007--Superman:  Doomsday--Superman is killed by Doomsday, a Kryptonian creature unearthed by Lexcorp.  However, he is revived by his Kryptonian robot and then must fight his own clone created by Luthor.  In Superman's fortress is a Mechanical Monster among his trophies.  One of the Bulleteers' bullet cars is also in the Fortress trophy room.  

2013 - 2015--The Last Mechanical Monster--A webcomic sequel to the Mechanical Monsters.

Image result for Project A-Ko parentsImage result for Project A-Ko parents
Release Date: June 21,1986 (Setting is an indeterminate time in the near future)
Series: Project A-ko
Animated Series Crosses: Superman (Fleischer Studios); Super Dimension; Macross
Other Crosses: Wonder Woman (television)
The Story: An alien space craft crashed into Graviton City, wiping out the whole population. A new city is built in its place. A-ko and C-ko are best friends at the new Graviton City high school. A-ko is the daughter of Clark Kent and Diana Prince Kent, and has inherited superhuman strength and speed, but otherwise is an average teenager. Both girls gain the interest of B-ko, a rich girl with who is a genius with technology. B-ko has a crush on C-ko, and expresses her feelings by attacking A-ko each morning using her advanced mecha technology and her team of female followers. Eventually, the aliens return, an all-female race of aliens, who invade in order to abduct their lost princess, who turns out to be C-ko. A-ko and B-ko team-up to save Graviton City.
Notes: Though the time period is indeterminate, due to the aged and married Superman and Wonder Woman with a teen child, and based on the fact that the Cartoon Universe also includes Star Trek, I suspect this takes place in the 22nd century, at a point in the Cartoon Universe’s improbable future where the heroes would age (should they start aging) and when first contact was achieved but Earth was not yet part of the Federation. Project A-ko is followed by several sequels. A-ko’s parents are shown to be Superman and Wonder Woman, and specifically, this film references the Fleischer shorts Superman and the Bulleteers. Wonder Woman is visually based on Lynda Carter, the actress who played Wonder Woman in the 1970s television series. It could be some of the television series had similar events in the Cartoon Universe. This film heavily ties into Super Dimensional Fortress Macross, which itself is a crossover of the Super Dimensional trilogy and the Macross series. Project A-ko is the first Japanese animation to be brought into the Cartoon Universe, research wise, even though chronologically, there are others already presented. I should note that one of my fellow crossoverists, Salvatore Cucinotta, also believes B-ko must be the daughter of Tony Stark, aka Iron Man, based on her wealth, personality, and genius in technology and armor. However, though it makes sense, there is no actual evidence to support the idea.

Image result for Mechanical Monsters Batman the animated series
Alternate Versions:

DC Animated Universe (aka Earth-12 in the New 52 or Earth-992 in the Pre-Flashpoint era)--In the 84th episode of Batman the Animated Series, "Deep Freeze", Mr. Freeze is kidnapped by a robot resembling the Mechanical Monster robots and is hidden inside the robot's chest cavity, like Lois Lane does in the original short. The robot is also impervious to machine gun fire like in the original short.